Arriagada, C., Herrera, M. and Ocampo, J.A. 2007. Beneficial effect of saprobe and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on tolerance of Eucalyptus globulusco-cultured with Glycine max to heavy metal contaminated soil.  Journal of Environmental Management. 84: 93-99. (ISI. Impact Factor:1.794). j.jenvman.2006.05.005

Arriagada, C., Herrera, M.A., Borie, F. and Ocampo, J.A. 2007. Contribution of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal and Saprobe Fungi to the Aluminum Resistance of Eucalyptus globulus. Water, Air and Soil Pollution. 182: 383-394. (ISI. Impact Factor:1.398). 10.1007/s11270-007-9349-5

Alvear, M., Reyes, F., Morales, A., Arriagada, C., and Reyes M. 2007. Actividad biológica y agregados estables al agua en dos tipos de formaciones vegetales de un bosque templado del Centro-Sur de Chile con perturbación antrópica. Ecología Austral. 17 (1): 113-122. (SCielo). contributions/Arriagada-C/2007.-Arriagada-EA.pdf

Arriagada, C. and Rai, M. 2007. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in agicultural ecosystem. En: Mycotechnology: Present Status and Future Prospects. (M K Rai and S K Deshmukh Editors). Jodhpur, India. Chapter 6:121-137 p.  ISBN: 81-8986-608-7.

Beneficial effect of saprobe and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on growth of Eucalyptus globulus co-cultured with Glycine max in soil contaminated with heavy metals

Author Full Names: Arriagada, Cesar A.; Herrera, Miguel A.; Ocampo, Juan A.


The effects of saprobe and arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi on growth, chlorophyll and N, P and K content of Eucalyptus globulus Labill. growing in soil contaminated by heavy metals in the presence or absence of Glycine max were investigated. Glomus mosseae and Glomus deserticola increased dry weight, shoot length, total N, P and K concentration and the quantity of chlorophyll in E. globulus shoots. The protection of Eucalyptus by AM fungi against the action of the heavy metals was more evident when this plant grew as an intercrop with soybean than as a monoculture. The presence of the saprobe fungi Fusarium concolor and Trichoderma koningii further enhanced shoot dry weight, N, P and K content of AM Eucalyptus. The co-inoculation of Eucalyptus with Glomus deserticola and T koningii was more effective for Cd uptake. In addition, Glomus deserticola enhanced the amount of Ph absorbed by Eucalyptus plants. We showed that it is important to select the most efficient AM and saprobe fungi to stimulate plant growth in heavy-metal-contaminated soil and that the combination of both plays an important role in metal tolerance of Eucalyptus plants. (C0 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

DOI: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2006.05.005

UT (Unique WOS ID): WOS:000246908800010

Contribution of arbuscular mycorrhizal and saprobe fungi to the aluminum resistance of Eucalyptus globulus

Author Full Names: Arriagada, C. A.; Herrera, M. A.; Borie, F.; Ocampo, J. A.


Aluminum in acidic conditions is toxic to plants. Aluminum tolerance in some plant species has been ascribed to arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal symbiosis. In this study, the application of aluminum was found to inhibit mycelia development of saprobe fungi Fusarium concolor and Trichoderma koningii and the hyphal length of the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi Glomus mosseae and Glomus deserticola in vitro. Several levels of aluminum were applied to Eucalyptus globulus plants and inoculated with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi alone or together with both saprobe fungi. The application of 1,500 mg kg(-1) decreased the shoot and root dry weight, chlorophyll content and total P, Mg, and Ca concentrations in the shoot of E. globulus. However, both mycorrhizal fungi G. mosseae and G. deserticola inoculated alone increased the shoot dry weight of Eucalyptus, compared with a non- arbuscular mycorrhizal inoculated control treated with 1,500 mg kg(-1) of aluminum. When 1,500 mg kg(-1) of aluminum was applied, T. koningii increased the effect of G. deserticola on the shoot weight of eucalyptus, whereas with 3,000 mg kg(-1), shoot weight and arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization decreased in all treatments. With 1,500 mg kg(-1), the highest accumulation of aluminum in the shoot was obtained when G. deserticola was inoculated together with T. koningii. The possibility of manipulating an arbuscular mycorrhizal inoculation together with a saprobe fungus confers a high aluminum resistance in E. globulus. The effect of such combined inoculation is particularly important in some Chilean volcanic acid soils, mainly those which have been intensively cropped and are without lime addition, which facilitates the increase of phytotoxic aluminum species and limits their agricultural use. Therefore, such dual inoculation in field conditions deserves further investigation. Overall, the arbuscular mycorrhizal and saprobe fungi contribute to the increase in resistance of E. globulus to aluminium.

DOI: 10.1007/s11270-007-9349-5

UT (Unique WOS ID): WOS:000246360400032

Effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and mycoremediated dry olive residue in lead uptake in wheat plants

Author Full Names: Garcia-Sanchez, Mercedes; Andrea Silva-Castro, Gloria; Sanchez, Alvaro; Arriagada, Cesar; Garcia-Romera, Inmaculada


This study aims to evaluate the role of the extraradical mycelium of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in Pb transport. We also investigate how these fungi, alone or combined with the mycoremediated dry olive residue (MDOR), provide protection against Pb. We established a container system consisting of a central compartment and two lateral compartments separated by a hydrophobic membrane. The central compartment was filled with sterilized soil in which wheat plants, inoculated and non-inoculated with Funneliformis mosseae, were grown. The lateral compartments were filled with sterile, Pb-contaminated or MDOR-amended soil or combinations of both. In contrast to shoots and grains, wheat roots accumulated larger amounts of Pb with or without applications of MDOR. The extraradical mycelium (ERM) and the glomalin related protein content were significantly boosted by adding MDOR to Pb-contaminated soil samples. Wheat mot biomass was decreased as the result of Pb contamination with no increases in plant phosphorous (P) uptake. However, MDOR, when added to Pbcontaminated soil samples, only boosted the accumulation of P in roots, with P content and biomass remaining unchanged in wheat shoots and grains. Our study highlights the role of the ERM in Pb transport its accumulation in wheat mots and how the protection effect exerted by AMF seemed to rely on MDOR application by increasing the P uptake rather than Pb.

DOI: 10.1016/j.apsoil.2020.103838

UT (Unique WOS ID): WOS:000609456600020

Controlled mycorrhization of the endemic Chilean orchidChloraea gavilu(Orchidaceae)

Author Full Names: Pereira, Guillermo; Herrera, Hector; Arriagada, Cesar; Cid, Hertes; Garcia, Jose Leonardo; Atala, Cristian


Orchids require mycorrhizal fungi (OMF) for their germination and growth. Propagation and re-introduction initiatives would likely require inoculation with such fungi. All Chilean Orchidaceae species are terrestrial and likely associate with OMF. We collected adult individuals of the endemic Chilean orchidChloraea gaviluand transported them to a glasshouse where we obtained mature capsules through manual auto-pollination. We asymbiotically germinated seeds in vitro using Malmgren Modified Terrestrial Orchid-Medium (MM). Embryos were put in glass flasks with MM where roots and leaves developed for 16 weeks. Plants were then transplanted to 165 mL pots and randomly separated into three groups; plants inoculated separately withCeratobasidiumOMFs isolated from two Chilean orchid species (Chloraea virescensandCodonorchis lessonii), and uninoculated (control) plants. Plants were then put in a growth chamber. Three months later, inoculated individuals showed pelotons inside parenchyma cells in the roots. Four months after inoculation, mycorrhizal plants had higher root and shoot biomass compared to control plants. At the end of the experiment, the highest mycorrhization was achieved with theCeratobasidiumstrain isolated fromC. lessonii. The artificial mycorrhization of endemic orchids could be a key strategy for future conservation and propagation initiatives, especially for endangered or commercially interesting species.

DOI: 10.1080/11263504.2020.1801875

UT (Unique WOS ID): WOS:000562194000001