Alejandra Fuentes, L. Almonacid, Juan Antonio Ocampo and Cesar Arriagada. 2016. Synergistic interactions between a saprophytic fungal consortium and Rhizophagus irregularis alleviate oxidative stress in plants grown in heavy metal contaminated soil. Plant and Soil.  Volume 407, Issue 1, pp 355–366.  (WOS. Impact Factor: 3.299   Q1).

Alejandra Fuentes, Javier Ortiz, Nicolas Saavedra, Luis A. Salazar, Claudio Meneses, Cesar Arriagada. 2016. Reference gene selection for quantitative real-time PCR in Solanum lycopersicum L. inoculated with the mycorrhizal fungus Rhizophagus irregularis. Plant Physiology and Biochemistry. 101, 124-131 (WOS. Impact Factor: 3.720    Q1). j.plaphy.2016.01.022

Christian Salas, Pablo Donoso, Rodrigo Vargas, Cesar Arriagada, Rodrigo Pedraza and Daniel Soto. 2016. The Forest Sector in Chile: An Overview and Current Challenges. Journal of Forestry. 114(5):562–571 (WOS. Impact Factor: 2.342   Q1).  https://doi:

Synergistic interactions between a saprophytic fungal consortium and Rhizophagus irregularis alleviate oxidative stress in plants grown in heavy metal contaminated soil

Author Full Names: Fuentes, Alejandra; Almonacid, Leonardo; Antonio Ocampo, Juan; Arriagada, Cesar

Source Title: PLANT AND SOIL

Accumulation of heavy metals in soil causes loss of cover vegetation and increases the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). ROS accumulation induces the expression of genes encoding antioxidant enzymes and other proteins involved in redox homeostasis. This study aimed to evaluate the interaction between a saprophytic fungal consortium and mycorrhizal Rhizophagus irregularis with regard to the oxidative stress and molecular responses of Solanum lycopersicum L. grown in a soil contaminated with heavy metals. We determined the effects of the saprophytic fungal consortium (Bjerkandera adusta and Mortierella sp) and the mycorrhizal fungus Rhizophagus irregularis on the plant antioxidant response and the expression levels of genes encoding metallothioneins (MT), phytochelatins (PC), the NRAMP transporter and heat shock protein (HSP) in Solanum lycopersicum cultivated in a heavy metal-contaminated soil. The fungal consortium increased plant growth, and the co-inoculation with R. irregularis synergistically improved soil biochemical activities. Superoxide dismutase activity decreased in all treatments. Peroxidase activity (ascorbate and guaiacol) increased in plants inoculated with R. irregularis and the fungal consortium. Dual inoculation decreased the malondialdehyde content in the leaves and increased transcription of the NRAMP, GR, MT2b, PCS and HSP90 genes. Our results demonstrate that co-inoculation contributes to reduced plant stress by improving defence mechanisms and homeostasis.

DOI: 10.1007/s11104-016-2893-2

UT (Unique WOS ID): WOS:000385205100026

Reference gene selection for quantitative real-time PCR in Solanum lycopersicum L. inoculated with the mycorrhizal fungus Rhizophagus irregularis

Author Full Names: Fuentes, Alejandra; Ortiz, Javier; Saavedra, Nicolas; Salazar, Luis A.; Meneses, Claudio; Arriagada, Cesar


The gene expression stability of candidate reference genes in the roots and leaves of Solanum lycopersicum inoculated with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi was investigated. Eight candidate reference genes including elongation factor 1 alpha (EF1), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK), protein phosphatase 2A (PP2Acs), ribosomal protein 12 (RPL2), beta-tubulin (TUB), ubiquitin (UBI) and actin (ACT) were selected, and their expression stability was assessed to determine the most stable internal reference for quantitative PCR normalization in S. lycopersicum inoculated with the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Rhizophagus irregularis. The stability of each gene was analysed in leaves and roots together and separated using the geNorm and NormFinder algorithms. Differences were detected between leaves and roots, varying among the best-ranked genes depending on the algorithm used and the tissue analysed. PGK, TUB and EF1 genes showed higher stability in roots, while EF1 and UBI had higher stability in leaves. Statistical algorithms indicated that the GAPDH gene was the least stable under the experimental conditions assayed. Then, we analysed the expression levels of the LePT4 gene, a phosphate transporter whose expression is induced by fungal colonization in host plant roots. No differences were observed when the most stable genes were used as reference genes. However, when GAPDH was used as the reference gene, we observed an overestimation of LePT4 expression. In summary, our results revealed that candidate reference genes present variable stability in S. lycopersicum arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis depending on the algorithm and tissue analysed. Thus, reference gene selection is an important issue for obtaining reliable results in gene expression quantification. (C) 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

DOI: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2016.01.022

UT (Unique WOS ID): WOS:000373553600014

The Forest Sector in Chile: An Overview and Current Challenges

Author Full Names: Salas, Christian; Donoso, Pablo J.; Vargas, Rodrigo; Arriagada, Cesar A.; Pedraza, Rodrigo; Soto, Daniel P.


Chile has a strong forest sector based on plantations of exotic species and an extensive area of temperate rainforests with unique ecological features and a wealth of biodiversity and endemism. We present an overview of the forest sector of Chile focused on forest resources, silviculture, economy, social and environmental aspects, and forestry education and research. The Chilean forest sector is internationally known for its success. Although this is one of the most important economic activities of Chile, management between exotic species plantations and natural forests is very asymmetric. Currently, highly intensive silviculture is applied to forest plantations of Pinus radiate (radiata pine) and Eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus, Eucalyptus nitens) but only limited operational silviculture is applied to natural forests, even though there is considerable research to support it. There are still unresolved issues related to: conversion from natural forests to other land uses; pulp mills, and new efforts are needed from the government and large forestry companies to account for social and environmental demands. There is a good amount of university-level forestry education; however, there is an oversupply of professional foresters.

DOI: 10.5849/jof.14-062

UT (Unique WOS ID): WOS:000383113500006